Long united only by the Crown, a true Spanish state was established when the first Bourbon king, Philip V, united the crowns of Castile and Aragon into a single state, abolishing many of the old regional privileges and laws.[79]. Areas relying on non-irrigated cultivation (secano), which made up 85% of the entire crop area, depended solely on rainfall as a source of water. 14 Spanish Society and Economics in the Imperial Age", "A Country Study: Spain – Spain in Decline", "Caciquismo y mundo rural durante la Restauración", "Relatives of Spaniards who fled Franco granted citizenship", "US to clean up Spanish radioactive site 49 years after plane crash", "El contubernio que preparó la democracia", "Speech by Mrs Nicole FONTAINE, President of the European Parliament on the occasion of the presentation of the Sakharov Prize 2000 to Basta ya! [119][120] The resulting general election in 1977 convened the Constituent Cortes (the Spanish Parliament, in its capacity as a constitutional assembly) for the purpose of drafting and approving the constitution of 1978. Municipalities are granted autonomy to manage their internal affairs, and provinces are the territorial divisions designed to carry out the activities of the State.[140]. * Country having joined GRECO after the close of the First Evaluation Round (31 December 2002), subject to a Joint First and Second Round Evaluation / Pays ayant adhéré au GRECO après la fin du Premier Cycle d'Evaluation (31 décembre 2002), soumis à une Evaluation Conjointe des Premier et Deuxième Cycles Phiros became related by marriage to Espan, the nephew of king Heracles, who also ruled over a kingdom in Spain. During the Romantic period, José Zorrilla created one of the most emblematic figures in European literature in Don Juan Tenorio. Log In. This article is about the country. On 25 March, the death toll in Spain was the second highest in the world.[114]. [199] Spain subsequently has one of the oldest populations in the world, with the average age of 43.1 years. Along the Pyrenees in Girona, a small exclave town called Llívia is surrounded by France. We have reviews of the best places to see in Barcelona. ", "Economy reaps benefits of entry to the 'club' : Spain's euro bonanza", "Spain's economy / Plain sailing no longer", "Spain's population falls as immigrants flee crisis", "Basque separatists Eta announce ceasefire", "Spain's Indignados protest here to stay", "Mariano Rajoy announces €65bn in austerity measures for Spain", "Spain king: Juan Carlos signs his abdication", "El Parlament de Cataluña aprueba la resolución para declarar la independencia", "Catalan crisis: Regional MPs debate Spain takeover bid", "Catalan crisis: Spain PM Rajoy demands direct rule", "Catalonia independence: Rajoy dissolves Catalan parliament", "Catalonia: what direct rule from Madrid could mean", "Spain's Prime Minister, Mariano Rajoy, Is Ousted in No-Confidence Vote", "Coronavirus latest: Britain's Prince Charles tests positive for Covid-19", «Orígenes históricos y ambigüedad de la frontera hispano-lusa (La Raya)», "World Map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification updated – (see p.3)", World Map of Köppen-Geiger Climate Classification, "SPAIN: No Turning Back from Path to Gender Equality", "Swiss Experience With Decentralized Government", "La Constitución española de 1978. Spanish art, architecture, cuisine, and music have been shaped by successive waves of foreign invaders, as well as by the country's Mediterranean climate and geography. Estimates are from the following sources: the "Functional Urban Areas" (FUAs) of the Study on Urban Functions of the European Spatial Planning Observation Network (ESPON, 2007); the "Larger Urban Zone" (LUZs) of Urban Audit project (2004), supported by the European Union. #Linch, John (director), Fernández Castro, María Cruz (del segundo tomo), Historia de España, El País, volumen II, La península Ibérica en época prerromana, p. 40. Though only about 17% of Spain's cultivated land was irrigated, it was estimated to be the source of between 40 and 45% of the gross value of crop production and of 50% of the value of agricultural exports. Cancel free on most hotels. Only two communities—the Basque Country and Navarre—have full fiscal autonomy. Napoleon's troops entered the country to invade Portugal but instead occupied Spain's major fortresses. Find many great new & used options and get the best deals for ESPAGNE LOT 22 TIMBRES NEUFS DES ANNEES 50. The Spanish writers are: José Echegaray, Jacinto Benavente, Juan Ramón Jiménez, Vicente Aleixandre and Camilo José Cela. Sublime and sophisticated techno. As in the rest of Europe during the Late Middle Ages, Antisemitism greatly increased during the 14th century in the Christian kingdoms (a key event in that regard was the Black Death, as Jews were accused of poisoning the waters). comarca) and the vegueries (sing. Shop at Desigual USA for the new women’s, men’s and kids’ fashion and decor collections. [citation needed], Judaism was practically non-existent in Spain from the 1492 expulsion until the 19th century, when Jews were again permitted to enter the country. The Suebi established a kingdom in what is today modern Galicia and northern Portugal whereas the Vandals established themselves in southern Spain by 420 before crossing over to North Africa in 429 and taking Carthage in 439. Ecouter. On the other hand, it is also during the Second Republic when important reforms to modernize the country were initiated: a democratic constitution, agrarian reform, restructuring of the army, political decentralization and women's right to vote. Discover 683 studio vacation rentals to book online direct from owner in Pont d'Espagne, Cauterets. Artists such as Benito Pérez Galdós, Emilia Pardo Bazán, Leopoldo Alas (Clarín), Concepción Arenal, Vicente Blasco Ibáñez and Menéndez Pelayo created Realist artworks. [39] Many of the Vikings' casualties were caused by the Galicians' ballistas – powerful torsion-powered projectile weapons that looked rather like giant crossbows. Early on its coastal areas were settled by Phoenicians who founded Western Europe's most ancient cities Cádiz and Málaga. In the same period of time, the number of citizens with Spanish citizenship reached 42,094,606. Almost every aspect of Spanish life is permeated by its Roman heritage, making Spain one of the major Latin countries of Europe. The Berbers soon gave up attempting to settle the harsh lands in the north of the, For the related expulsions that followed see. Secure online payment. The current education system is regulated by the 2006 educational law, LOE (Ley Orgánica de Educación), or Fundamental Law for the Education. Currently there are around 62,000 Jews in Spain, or 0.14% of the total population. Discover 1,534 holiday homes to book online for your Pont d'Espagne, Cauterets holiday. The current provincial division structure is based—with minor changes—on the 1833 territorial division by Javier de Burgos, and in all, the Spanish territory is divided into 50 provinces. Destinia ti offre l' Hotel D'Espagne a Parigi a partire da 50 €. Radio Spain is an internet radio application using data network. According to a June 2016 study by the Spanish Centre for Sociological Research about 70% of Spaniards self-identify as Catholics, 2% other faith, and about 25% identify with no religion. In the 11th century, the Muslim holdings fractured into rival Taifa states (Arab, Berber, and Slav),[38] allowing the small Christian states the opportunity to greatly enlarge their territories. Secure online payment. The country's national football team won the UEFA European Football Championship in 1964, 2008 and 2012 and the FIFA World Cup in 2010, and is the first team ever to win three back-to-back major international tournaments. Spain is a Western country. The overwhelming majority of Gibraltarians strongly oppose this, along with any proposal of shared sovereignty. In the following reigns the Catholic kings of France assumed the role of protectors of the Hispano-Roman Catholics against the Arianism of the Visigoths, and in the wars which ensued Alaric II and Amalaric lost their lives. Autonomous communities are divided into provinces, of which there are 50 in total, and in turn, provinces are divided into municipalities. [50] There were mass killings in Aragon in the mid-14th century, and 12,000 Jews were killed in Toledo. In 1469, the crowns of the Christian kingdoms of Castile and Aragon were united by the marriage of Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon. Spanish culture is marked by strong historic ties to Catholicism, which played a pivotal role in the country's formation and subsequent identity. The war claimed the lives of over 500,000 people and caused the flight of up to a half-million citizens from the country. Approximately 80,000 Jews are thought to have lived in Spain prior to its expulsion. Miscegenation was the rule between the native and the Spanish cultures and people. The little Pheasant Island in the River Bidasoa is a Spanish-French condominium. While still driven by the national and existential questions that obsessed the writers of '98, they approached these topics with a greater sense of distance and objectivity. Welcome to H&M, your shopping destination for fashion online. This is a list of the largest metropolitan areas in Spain by population.. During the war, in 1810, a revolutionary body, the Cortes of Cádiz, was assembled to co-ordinate the effort against the Bonapartist regime and to prepare a constitution. Atlantic Spain – the whole Northern coast, including Asturian, Basque, Cantabrian and Galician cuisine – vegetable and fish-based stews like caldo gallego and marmitako. Depending on the nature of the crop, it was possible to harvest two successive crops in the same year on about 10% of the country's irrigated land. Year 2019", "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2020", "Gini coefficient of equivalised disposable income – EU-SILC survey", "Spain | Facts, Culture, History, & Points of Interest", "Spanish Military Arrest Four Moroccans after they Tried to Hoist Moroccan Flag in Badis Island", "572 millones de personas hablan español, cinco millones más que hace un año, y aumentarán a 754 millones a mediados de siglo", "La Constitución española de 1978. During the Reconquista, the epic poem Cantar de Mio Cid was written about a real man—his battles, conquests, and daily life. espagne - espagne (1/1) - Questions et informations sur l'Espagne - English (United Kingdom) The death of their son Prince John caused the Crown to pass to Charles I (the Emperor Charles V), son of Juana la Loca. Despite the conditions, some important scientists and engineers emerged. E. Mariah Carey All I Want For Christmas Is You. Its territory also includes two archipelagos: the Canary Islands off the coast of North Africa, and the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. Easy-to-use interface and totally free Stable play of radio shows! Due to historical, geographical and generational diversity, Spanish art has known a great number of influences. In addition, the Basque Country, Catalonia and Navarre have police corps of their own: Ertzaintza, Mossos d'Esquadra and the Policía Foral respectively. The tourism industry has led to an improvement in sports infrastructure, especially for water sports, golf and skiing. An uneasy relationship between the Republican government and the grassroots anarchists who had initiated a partial Social revolution also ensued. [236], Spain is legally multilingual,[237] and the constitution establishes that the nation will protect "all Spaniards and the peoples of Spain in the exercise of human rights, their cultures and traditions, languages and institutions. Spanish cuisine consists of a great variety of dishes which stem from differences in geography, culture and climate. en Espagne (Spain) (en temps réel) 1. [96], In 2002 the Prestige oil spill occurred with big ecological consequences along Spain's Atlantic coastline. In a process that took centuries, the small Christian kingdoms in the north gradually regained control of the peninsula. [l][63] From 1609 to 1614, over 300,000 Moriscos were sent on ships to North Africa and other locations, and, of this figure, around 50,000 died resisting the expulsion, and 60,000 died on the journey. Spain is a transcontinental country, having territory in both Europe and Africa. Castile and Leon is the Spanish leader in rural tourism linked to its environmental and architectural heritage. Spain is currently experiencing a revolution in contemporary architecture and Spanish architects like Rafael Moneo, Santiago Calatrava, Ricardo Bofill as well as many others have gained worldwide renown. Spain includes different phytogeographic regions, each with its own floristic characteristics resulting largely from the interaction of climate, topography, soil type and fire, biotic factors. It is this last feature of "shared identity" between the more local level or autonomous community and the Spanish level which makes the identity question in Spain complex and far from univocal. The vast majority was composed of immigrants and descendants originating from the Maghreb (especially Morocco) and other African countries. The expansion of the empire caused immense upheaval in the Americas as the collapse of societies and empires and new diseases from Europe devastated American indigenous populations. The vegetation of Spain is varied due to several factors including the diversity of the relief, the climate and latitude. [21], Intermarriage between Visigoths and Hispano-Romans was prohibited, though in practice it could not be entirely prevented and was eventually legalised by Liuvigild. Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean "the land where metals are forged". In particular, three main divisions are easily identified: Mediterranean Spain – all such coastal regions, from Catalonia to Andalusia – heavy use of seafood, such as pescaíto frito (fried fish); several cold soups like gazpacho; and many rice-based dishes like paella from Valencia[270] and arròs negre (black rice) from Catalonia.[271]. Their origin is unclear. [citation needed], There were two Schools of special flair and talent: the Seville School, to which Juan Martínez Montañés belonged, whose most celebrated works are the Crucifix in the Cathedral of Seville, another in Vergara, and a Saint John; and the Granada School, to which Alonso Cano belonged, to whom an Immaculate Conception and a Virgin of Rosary, are attributed. In June 1976, Spain's new King Juan Carlos dismissed Carlos Arias Navarro and appointed the reformer Adolfo Suárez as Prime Minister. [169], The automotive industry is one of the largest employers in the country. Découvrez les plus beaux endroits du monde, téléchargez des traces GPS et suivez le sentier des meilleures routes et chemins à partir d'une carte. Secure payments, 24/7 support and a Book with Confidence guarantee Athanagild, having risen against King Agila, called in the Byzantines and, in payment for the succour they gave him, ceded to them the maritime places of the southeast (554). Isidore was one of the most influential clerics and philosophers in the Middle Ages in Europe, and his theories were also vital to the conversion of the Visigothic Kingdom from an Arian domain to a Catholic one in the Councils of Toledo. Shortly after, in 739, Muslim forces were driven from Galicia, which was to eventually host one of medieval Europe's holiest sites, Santiago de Compostela and was incorporated into the new Christian kingdom. On 1 January 2002, Spain fully adopted the euro, and Spain experienced strong economic growth, well above the EU average during the early 2000s. In Catalonia, two additional divisions exist, the comarques (sing. Phoenician influence expanded as much of the Peninsula was eventually incorporated into the Carthaginian Empire, becoming a major theatre of the Punic Wars against the expanding Roman Empire. Basques occupied the western area of the Pyrenees mountain range and adjacent areas, the Phoenician-influenced Tartessians culture flourished in the southwest and the Lusitanians and Vettones occupied areas in the central west. Discover 1,541 vacation rentals to book online for your Pont d'Espagne, Cauterets trip. During the Second Republic there was a great political and social upheaval, marked by a sharp radicalization of the left and the right. [218][219][220][221][222] There are also the mercheros (also quinquis), a formerly nomadic minority group. Spain has been described as a de facto plurinational state. The Prime Minister, Manuel Godoy, then ensured that Spain allied herself with France in the brief War of the Third Coalition which ended with the British naval victory at the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805. For example, ESPON considers Oviedo–Gijón–Avilés as a single FUA, while Urban Audit has separate LUZs for Oviedo and Gijón. These conflicts drained it of resources and undermined the economy generally. Migrations Statistics. Secure online payment. Florida was colonised by Pedro Menéndez de Avilés when he founded St. Augustine, Florida and then defeated an attempt led by the French Captain Jean Ribault to establish a French foothold in Spanish Florida territory. Not all cities were included in this survey. [39][40] Vikings raided Galicia in 859, during the reign of Ordoño I of Asturias. [242], State education in Spain is free and compulsory from the age of six to sixteen. [229][230] In 2005 alone, a regularisation programme increased the legal immigrant population by 700,000 people. Enlightenment ideas began to gain ground among some of the kingdom's elite and monarchy. Particularly noteworthy was the development in Almería—one of the most arid and desolate provinces of Spain—of winter crops of various fruits and vegetables for export to Europe. Chapter 1 – Hispania", Islamic and Christian Spain in the Early Middle Ages. According to Hasdai Crescas, about 70 Jewish communities were destroyed. Spain needed every hand it could take during the seemingly endless wars of the eighteenth century—the Spanish War of Succession or Queen Anne's War (1702–13), the War of Jenkins' Ear (1739–42) which became the War of the Austrian Succession (1740–48), the Seven Years' War (1756–63) and the Anglo-Spanish War (1779–83)—and its new disciplined militias served around the Atlantic as needed. In 1793, Spain went to war against the revolutionary new French Republic as a member of the first Coalition. Electricity from renewable sources in Spain represented 42.8% of electricity demand coverage during 2014. 24/7 … [citation needed] In 1983 they represented 12%, 12%, 8%, 6%, and 4%, respectively, of the country's agricultural production. It reached its apogee during the reigns of the first two Spanish Habsburgs—Charles I (1516–1556) and Philip II (1556–1598). Top Cable is an international electric cable manufacturer. The new Bourbon monarchy drew on the French system of modernising the administration and the economy. Accueil > Charts > Top Singles en Espagne (Spain) Classement officiel des ventes de singles. Best Dining in Valencia, Province of Valencia: See 458,558 Tripadvisor traveler reviews of 4,202 Valencia restaurants and search by cuisine, price, location, and more. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago. [59][60][61] This was followed by expulsions in 1493 in Aragonese Sicily and Portugal in 1497. The island lies 250 metres (820 ft) just off the coast of Morocco, 8 kilometres (5.0 mi) from Ceuta and 13.5 kilometres (8.4 mi) from mainland Spain. The weakening of the Western Roman Empire's jurisdiction in Hispania began in 409, when the Germanic Suebi and Vandals, together with the Sarmatian Alans entered the peninsula at the invitation of a Roman usurper. 89 chalets to book online in Pont d'Espagne, Cauterets. La etimología de España; ¿tierra de conejos?, Reviving the Reconquista in Southeast Asia: Moros and the Making of the Philippines, 1565–1662 By: Ethan P. Hawkley, Article 143 of the 1978 Spanish Constitution in reference to Article 2. [207] Approximately two million Spaniards migrated to other Western European countries between 1960 and 1975. Mario Camus and Pilar Miró worked together in Curro Jiménez. Best Dining in Valencia, Province of Valencia: See 458,558 Tripadvisor traveler reviews of 4,202 Valencia restaurants and search by cuisine, price, location, and more. Emperors Hadrian, Trajan, Theodosius I, and the philosopher Seneca were born in Hispania. News & Advice. The Iberians inhabited the Mediterranean side of the peninsula, from the northeast to the southeast. Rosa Chacel, Gloria Fuertes, Jaime Gil de Biedma, Juan Goytisolo, Carmen Martín Gaite, Ana María Matute, Juan Marsé, Blas de Otero, Gabriel Celaya, Antonio Gamoneda, Rafael Sánchez Ferlosio or Ignacio Aldecoa. [130][131], Spain provides one of the highest degrees of liberty in the world for its LGBT community. The 13th century also witnessed the Crown of Aragon, centred in Spain's north east, expand its reach across islands in the Mediterranean, to Sicily and Naples. Top 500 YouTube Channels. Its policy emphasises the concept of an Ibero-American community, essentially the renewal of the concept of "Hispanidad" or "Hispanismo", as it is often referred to in English, which has sought to link the Iberian Peninsula with Hispanic America through language, commerce, history and culture. 50 '7 Shadows and Iron Lungs' Byran Chapman (Monotony) After four well received releases on his imprint Monotony, Bryan Chapman blends drones and delicacy in his gorgeous debut album. [citation needed], The Plateresque style extended from beginnings of the 16th century until the last third of the century and its stylistic influence pervaded the works of all great Spanish artists of the time. Eventually, Phoenician-Carthaginians expanded inland towards the meseta; however, due to the bellicose inland tribes, the Carthaginians got settled in the coasts of the Iberian Peninsula. During the Enlightenment we find names such as Leandro Fernández de Moratín, Benito Jerónimo Feijóo, Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos or Leandro Fernández de Moratín. These writers, along with Ramón del Valle-Inclán, Antonio Machado, Ramiro de Maeztu, and Ángel Ganivet, came to be known as the Generation of '98. Smaller numbers of immigrants from several Sub-Saharan countries have recently been settling in Spain. FootballCritic (FC) has one main purpose - to help football fans of every level of obsession understand and enjoy the game just a little more. 1 Ancient Hispania", "A Country Study: Spain. This sudden and ongoing inflow of immigrants, particularly those arriving illegally by sea, has caused noticeable social tension.[227]. Andalusia also took that denomination in its first Statute of Autonomy, even though it followed the longer process stipulated in the constitution for the rest of the country. Julien Doré ... 50. And get 10% off your first purchase too! The result was a country forced into ever-expanding military efforts across Europe and in the Mediterranean. Ministers (designated by the Prime Minister). Free Delivery and Returns. In the anarcho-sindicalist trend of the labour movement in Spain, Confederación Nacional del Trabajo was founded in 1910 and Federación Anarquista Ibérica in 1927. The violent acts during this period included the burning of churches, the 1932 failed coup d'état led by José Sanjurjo, the Revolution of 1934 and numerous attacks against rival political leaders. King Ferdinand VII's attempt to re-assert control proved futile as he faced opposition not only in the colonies but also in Spain and army revolts followed, led by liberal officers. Autonomous communities are divided into provinces, which served as their territorial building blocks. Spain is the second biggest foreign investor there, after the United States. Fresh vegetables and fruits produced through intensive irrigation farming also became important export commodities, as did sunflower seed oil that was produced to compete with the more expensive olive oils in oversupply throughout the Mediterranean countries of the European Community. a supreme court, under the supreme court of Spain, which heads the judiciary in the autonomous community. [263] In addition, Spain has also 14 Intangible cultural heritage, or "Human treasures". After the return of democracy following the death of Franco in 1975, Spain's foreign policy priorities were to break out of the diplomatic isolation of the Franco years and expand diplomatic relations, enter the European Community, and define security relations with the West. The War of the Spanish Succession was a wide-ranging international conflict combined with a civil war, and was to cost the kingdom its European possessions and its position as one of the leading powers on the Continent. [268] Both festivals mark Spain as an international music presence and reflect the tastes of young people in the country. [170], German companies poured €4.8 billion into Spain in 2015, making the country the second-largest destination for German foreign direct investment behind only the U.S. Andrés de Urdaneta discovered the tornaviaje or return route from the Philippines to Mexico, making possible the Manila galleon trading route. UK Politics. In the early eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom was conquered by the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate. There was then an extraordinary flowering of the Gothic style that resulted in numerous instances being built throughout the entire territory. Both men wrote in two different published works that the first Jews to reach Spain were brought by ship by Phiros who was confederate with the king of Babylon when he laid siege to Jerusalem. The strong economic growth helped the government to reduce the government debt as a percentage of GDP and Spain's high unemployment rate began to steadily decline. As of 1 January 2020, the Spanish population increased in 392,921 in 2019, reaching a number of 47,330 million inhabitants. Low-lying areas of the Canary Islands average above 18.0 °C (64.4 °F) during their coldest month, thus having a tropical climate. There are several major rivers in Spain such as the Tagus (Tajo), Ebro, Guadiana, Douro (Duero), Guadalquivir, Júcar, Segura, Turia and Minho (Miño). Citrus fruits, vegetables, cereal grains, olive oil, and wine—Spain's traditional agricultural products—continued to be important in the 1980s. [258] There are about 105,000 Jehovah's Witnesses. Alonso Berruguete (Valladolid School) is called the "Prince of Spanish sculpture". It was the subject of an armed incident between the two countries in 2002. Food is traditionally conserved by salting, such as Spanish ham, or immersed in olive oil, such as Manchego cheese. Free delivery on orders over 75 â ¬. The Spanish State is divided into 17 autonomous communities and 2 autonomous cities, both groups being the highest or first-order administrative division in the country. Euro Top Chart è la hit parade del momento con le canzoni di maggior successo da tutta Europa. From Spain, top dissident vows to fight for free Venezuela. Skip to main content. The Celts inhabited much of the inner and Atlantic sides of the peninsula, from the northwest to the southwest. The break-up of Al-Andalus into the competing taifa kingdoms helped the long embattled Iberian Christian kingdoms gain the initiative. 1ª parte: entorno físico y medio ambiente", "Population Figures at 01 January 2019. These include the landscape of Monte Perdido in the Pyrenees, which is shared with France, the Prehistoric Rock Art Sites of the Côa Valley and Siega Verde, which is shared with Portugal, the Heritage of Mercury, shared with Slovenia and the Ancient and Primeval Beech Forests, shared with other countries of Europe. [261] However the Jewish Encyclopedia states the number over 800,000 to be too large and 235,000 as too small: 165,000 is given as expelled as possibly too small in favour or 200,000, and the numbers of converts after the 1391 pogroms as less. The country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea; to the north and northeast by France, Andorra, and the Bay of Biscay; and to the west and northwest by Portugal and the Atlantic Ocean respectively. The Protestant Reformation dragged the kingdom ever more deeply into the mire of religiously charged wars. The Spanish administration approved the Gender Equality Act in 2007 aimed at furthering equality between genders in Spanish political and economic life. The Vikings invaded Galicia in 844, but were heavily defeated by Ramiro I of Asturias at A Coruña. In the late 19th century nationalist movements arose in the Philippines and Cuba. The constitution also specifies that Spain has no state religion and that all are free to practice and believe as they wish. On 5 July 2013, Spain sent a letter to the UN expressing these views.[149][150]. [238], Spanish (español)— recognised in the constitution as Castilian (castellano)—is the official language of the entire country, and it is the right and duty of every Spaniard to know the language. [81] The most celebrated battles of this war were those of Bruch, in the highlands of Montserrat, in which the Catalan peasantry routed a French army; Bailén, where Castaños, at the head of the army of Andalusia, defeated Dupont; and the sieges of Zaragoza and Girona, which were worthy of the ancient Spaniards of Saguntum and Numantia. Spain joined the European Union, experiencing a cultural renaissance and steady economic growth until the beginning of the 21st century, that started a new globalised world with economic and ecological challenges. Source: IEA/OECD, Macias, Rosario Marquez, 1995 La Emigracion espanola a America 1765–1824. It is heavily influenced by seafood available from the waters that surround the country, and reflects the country's deep Mediterranean roots. Because of the proximity of the 2004 election, the issue of responsibility quickly became a political controversy, with the main competing parties PP and PSOE exchanging accusations over the handling of the incident.

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